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Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a monomeric glycoprotein that acts as a cytokine in humans. Macrophages, mast cells, T cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and natural killer cells, secrete GM-CSF. Although the release of GM-CSF is local, it can act in a paracrine fashion to recruit circulating monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils to enhance host defense mechanisms. Unlike colony -stimulating factor 3 that specializing in the proliferation and maturation of neutrophils, GM-CSF stimulates a spectrum of cell types, especially eosinophils and macrophages.

Recently, we have found that the extent to which a drug is glycosylated plays a crucial role in drug/body interactions. To optimize therapeutic effects and reduce toxic side effects of glycosylated drugs, we should consider culture-dependent techniques to determine the precise glycosylation status of these drugs. With more and more information on drug/body interactions becoming available, it is time we go beyond animal models to ‘personalize’ future treatment by using culture-dependent techniques as well as animal models to predict the potential human GM-CSF gene is present on chromosome region 5q31. Researchers first cloned GM-CSF in 1985 results.

Human gm csf protein is a glycosylated protein. The extent of the glycosylation plays a vital role in drug body interactions. Three different forms of this protein exist, ranging from carbohydrate free to highly glycosylated . There are no known inhibitors of the human GM-CSF protein, making the use of this protein as a drug delivery system ideal.

The biochemical structure of interferon-gamma or IFN γ is a human dimerized soluble protein encoded by the IFNG gene. It also has two subunits, IFNGR1 and IFNGR2, making up the IFN-γ receptor complex. The way it works in the body is to inhibit viral replication and fight against bacteria. It also stimulates and modulates the immune system.GM-CSF, also known as interferon gamma-3b or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is a protein dimer consisting of two cytokines coded for by separate genes. It is a member of the interferon family that stimulates white blood cells specifically to fight off infections and diseases. During manufacturing, GM-CSF can be glycosylated, which affects its drug/body interactions.

The cytokine interferon gamma  structure (IFN-γ) is a key mediator of innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. The protein encoded by this gene is the sole member of the type II interferon family and is produced by activated T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages. This gene product has antiviral activity, stimulates production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other cytokines, and induces proliferation and differentiation of B cells. 

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interferon family. It signals through interferon receptors to regulate the body’s defenses against viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. The extracellular domain of type II interferons consists of three cysteine-rich motifs that are connected via long linker sequences (L1, L2 and L3). This protein forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with the similarly structured type I interferon (α and β), whereas the α and β form heterodimers.

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