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The news media has been paying attention to climate change as more coverage is being given. Reporting on the subject is a pressing concern. This is evident by the citations of the actions taken by governments around the world to reduce environmental risks. For example, Harvey (2020) reports that world leaders and business heads have shifted their focus from economic and financial concerns to environmental issues. These include extreme weather and climate, climate breakdown, human-made pollutants, failure to adapt or mitigate climate change, natural catastrophes, ecosystem collapse, and biodiversity loss. Some media reports that even a small change in human activity, such as the coronavirus lockdowns, impacts the quality and quantity of the environment (Hall, 2020). The European Union (EU) is willing to spend resources to support research and innovation, indicating the urgency of this problem. The goal is to support actions that promote material sustainability and resource efficiency as well as protection and sustainable management (EU 2020). In light of the global greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions, and the release of carbon dioxide which contribute to the planet’s greenhouse effect, conservation is also discussed by the media. They also address the gender link to pollution and distinguish the levels of emission between men and women (Forrester 2020). The media selection discussed climate change from different perspectives, including identifying the causes and suggesting ways countries can mitigate the risk. They also emphasize the importance of the subject, as shown by their extensive coverage of it as part of their agenda-setting function.
Media representations of climate change, such as the claim that lockdowns have improved air quality, trivialize the problem by simplifying the effects of a small change in human activity. Hall (2020), argues that New Zealand’s lockdown has contributed to cleaner air quality, with reports indicating a significant decrease in traffic pollution in Auckland. This article exaggerates the issue by claiming that Henderson’s Lincoln Road was clean of road traffic pollution (Hall 2020). The author also reports that nitrogen oxide levels have dropped in many parts of the country, a result which is linked to the decreased use of cars. Since the media supports clean air quality, it is possible to overstate the contribution of human activities to the country’s GHG emissions. However, data showing the effects of human behavior on climate can be used to advocate for better measures to reduce environmental risks. This sensationalization is further supported by the article’s acknowledgment of climate change as a crisis at the same time as the coronavirus pandemic and the urgent need to take mitigation action. The article’s author makes the connection between pollution and the increased vulnerability of certain people to the virus, pushing it further up the agenda for authorities and the general public.
The media have also covered the effects of air transport on climate change, particularly the pollution from contrails. Ornes (2020), for example, argues that narrow clouds are created by high-flying jets that can disappear in minutes or last for days. Long-lasting contrails, which are sooty clouds, can trap heat in the atmosphere and cause global warming. The article sensationalizes climate change by linking it to air travel, which is a convenient and quick mode of transportation preferred by most businesspeople around the globe. The author wants to make people aware that even though they may think they have very little or no effect on the environment, their actions can actually cause significant environmental problems. Ornes (2020), suggests that flying higher in the sky could reduce atmospheric warming by as much as 59 percent. The article also encourages the use more efficient fuel to reduce pollution by over 90 percent (Ornes 2020). The article simplifies the effects of human activity on the environment. This allows the less-knowledgeable to see how little individual action can reduce global warming risks. It is important to reduce GHG emissions that trap heat and cause high temperatures.
The EU article also includes commercial elements that could hinder public understanding of climate change. This is because conservation has a monetary value attached to it. The challenge is to improve European competitiveness, increase the security of raw materials and better wellbeing, while also ensuring environmental integrity, sustainability and resilience (EU 2020). The European Commission is open to funding research and innovation to improve resource efficiency, water efficiency, and resilient societies and economies. The Commission targets sustainable resource management and sustainable raw materials supply in order to meet the growing needs of the world’s population. A reader might conclude that the Commission’s agenda goes beyond conservation if they see the link between EU funding and sustainability efforts. Because the EU has monetized their efforts, the link between sustainable innovation is a distraction from its environmental agenda. The public may confuse climate change programs with other development initiatives that are meant to spur economic growth. The article offers commercial incentives and complicates the environment problem because it includes climate action, cultural heritage as well as nature-based solutions, earth observations and systemic eco-innovation.
The introduction of gender perspectives into climate change discussions could be seen as sensationalization and may even harm the sustainability agenda. Forrester (2020), reports that Kiwi women produce less GHG emissions than men when they travel. According to Forrester 2020, the University of Otago study found that women use a variety of travel modes and produce less pollution than their male counterparts. The connection between travel patterns and gender is evident in the fact that women travel shorter distances. They travel less, but they also tend to walk more and take public transport more often than men. Women could ride a bicycle more easily because they travel fewer miles, while motor vehicle travel contributes the most to GHG emissions (Forrester 2020). The introduction of the gender perspective could make climate change sensational, as it seems to pit women against men. The problem is further complicated by media coverage that focuses on the male-and female paradigm. It directly implicates one group. This approach can hinder the public’s understanding about climate change and lead to an unnecessary gender war. GHG emissions are complex and must be addressed by global governments and climate activists.
The media coverage on climate change sets the agenda for urgency, but can also be distorting through sensationalization or trivialization. Because of the environmental risks, attention to the issue is on the rise. The sample data shows that this. The media can raise awareness and encourage sustainable action by bringing the issue to the attention of the public. The samples show that it is possible for the media to simplify the subject by simplifying the impact of human activities on climate changes. In addition, the commercialization of sustainability communicates a different agenda than environmental protection to the public. Media adoption of the gender approach in understanding climate change may cause problems because it creates unnecessary conflict that distracts from the main agenda. Global governments push climate change further up their agendas and media coverage positions it as urgent and requires attention.
The presentation of information on trending events is part of making news. This information is provided by newsmakers through a variety of media including electronic media, witnesses’ and observers’ testimonies and broadcasting, printing and word-of-mouth systems. (Nogueira & Tunez Lopez, 2019). News reports often cover entertainment, education, war, politics and environment, as well as government and health. Public health, laws, criminals and taxes as well as royal ceremonies have been news since the beginning of time (Nogueira & Tunez Lopez, 2019). Humans have a passion for news sharing and learning new things. Technological, social, and economic developments often influenced by espionage network and government communication have increased the speed with which people spread news and affected its structure and contents. Understanding how news reports are created is crucial for understanding the news content and understanding the different means of news dissemination.
The news genre we see today closely mirrors the ancient newspapers from China, which were presented as court bulletins. They were then printed and distributed to the rest of world using paper and printing press. There are many types of news report structure: the chronological order, inverted pyramid and hourglass. Inverted designs are the most common. This format places the most important points at the top and the least critical at the bottom. (Emde, Klimmt, & Schluetz, 2016,). The report’s main concepts are the focus of the report. The remaining sections provide support and explanations, as well as details about the why, when and whereabouts. A news report is composed of three parts: a beginning, middle and end element. 2016). The author tells a chronological tale starting at the beginning, giving complete details, dialogues and historical context.
A narrative structure allows a journalist more freedom to use flowery language that connects with and influences the audience. The narrative structure isn’t the best format for delivering information (Walters 2017,). This involves sharing experiences and lessons learned with readers. The hourglass structure works well when writing long articles, such as feature articles, in newspapers (Emde et al. 2016). This format is not commonly used in journalism to analyze organizational patterns. The format starts with a broad concern, then narrows down to information such as observations, figures, facts. The story expands as it answers the original question and provides conclusions. An hourglass structure is a combination of many journalistic styles in one account. (Walters 2017, p. The narrative begins with a strong lead similar to the inverted pyramid. The story moves on to a more narrative format and then returns to the inverted pyramid at the end.
A chronological structure is important in journalism, even though it is less relevant than the inverted pyramid format. When a journalist explains the sequence of events or things like earthquakes or tornadoes or hurricanes (Emde and al. 2016). Sometimes, it is possible to write the chronological order in reverse. Journalists disseminate news through different communication channels after making it. Today, journalists can either bring the printed press to a newsroom by phone or send it through reporters. The news is then typed and edited. Finally, it is transmitted via wire and stored manually in type. Breaking News is now a common term as American cable news companies use live communications satellite technology to broadcast new occurrences throughout the day into viewers’ homes. Consumers now have instant access to information that used to take days or weeks to reach standard information in other countries and streets via the internet, mobile phones, or radio (Nogueira & Tunez Lopez, 2019). The speed at which news is transmitted varies based on where you live and your lifestyle.
The news samples from local and global media are crucial in understanding the effects of global environmental change on society. They also help evaluate the consequences of global environmental destruction and global social justice issues. The news highlights the roles of countries and regions in preventing or addressing climate change. Global social justice perspectives show that nations that express concern about climate change are discussed in a positive light, while those who relax environmental laws are shown to be violating global social justice. Global appeal is often used when discussing environmental pollution and its destruction. The EU’s pledge to increase funding for environmental protection measures is a sign of the region’s commitment to environmental protection. However, no matter where the reporter is located, environmental pollution and the need for continued protection from further destruction are considered global social justice obligations. From a global journalism perspective, the media is significant in that it recognizes nations and regions that have implemented measures that support sustainability and protection. Hall et. al. (1978/1999) The media decides what information is reported, and the meaning and comprehension of the audience. I believe that the media can effectively show environmental protection as a global social responsibility.
The media is the global informer on developments and nationalistic environmental activities. Berglez (2008) argues that media reporting takes a global view, allowing issues beyond the borders of national countries to be reported and create global awareness. Reporting on the policies and actions of a country’s government is done in such a way that the audience can see the nation’s environmental situation and activities from a global perspective. Media reporting news from a nationalistic perspective places the nation in relation to the rest of the world. Newspapers that targeted a specific nation’s audience used data and terms related to that country. Stuff and One, a New Zealand-based news agency, use local data. Science News and the Guardian take a global view of environmental issues.
Global media can influence global problem awareness news by reaching a global audience and supporting international communication. To grab the attention of the public, global reporting tends to focus on negative aspects of issues such as pandemics or the negative effects of environmental change. We can see that media coverages are so focused on the destruction of solar system projects as a result of the coronavirus. Too much attention is given to statistics about the destructions and costs of natural disasters. The coverage of how lockdown helped clean-up New Zealand showed that the local government was failing to clean the country. Global media outlets use negative language to draw attention and communicate global problems or to bring attention to environmental issues in a country’s history. McCombs’ (1997) claims that media play an important role in shaping global issues are a good example of McCombs’s assertion that media set the agenda by focusing on issues that are more appealing to their audience.
Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Theoretical and empirical conceptualisations. Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845-858.
Emde, K., Klimmt, C., & Schluetz, D. M. (2016). Does storytelling help adolescents to process the news? A comparison of narrative news and the inverted pyramid. Journalism Studies, 17(5), 608-627.
EU. (2020). Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/climate-action-environment-resource-efficiency-and-raw-materials
Forrester, G. (2020, Jun. 10). Women generate less greenhouse gas emissions than men during travel, study finds. Stuff. https://www.stuff.co.nz/environment/121784633/women-generate-less-greenhouse-gas-emissions-than-men-during-travel-study-finds
Hall, K. (2020, Mar. 30). Lockdown helping cleanup New Zealand’s environment. TVNZ. https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/lockdown-helping-cleanup-new-zealands-environment
Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clark, J., & Roberts, B. (1978/1999). Extract from Policing the crisis. Reprinted in H. Tumber (Ed.), News: A Reader (pp. 249-256). Oxford: University Press.
Harvey, F. (2020, Jan. 21). Oceans, biodiversity, deforestation: What’s on the climate agenda for 2020? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/21/oceans-biodiversity-deforestation-whats-on-the-climate-agenda-for-2020
McCombs, M. (1997). Building consensus: The news media’s agenda-setting roles. Political Communication, 14(4), 433-443.
Nogueira, A. G. F., & Túñez-López, M. (2019, February). Multidimensional and multidirectional journalistic narrative: From tumbled pyramid to circular communication. In International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (pp. 965-974). Springer, Cham.
Ornes, S. (2020 Apr. 27). How to curb the climate heating by contrails. Science News for Students. https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/how-to-curb-the-climate-heating-by-contrails
Walters, P. (2017). Beyond the inverted pyramid: Teaching the writing and all-formats coverage of planned and unplanned breaking news. Teaching Journalism & Mass Communication, 7(2), 9-22.